Studies and reports


EU Dialogue on End-Of-Life of Pleasure Crafts: Final ReportLesser known tropical timber species for the yachting industry

  • On March 18, 2024, EBI organised the "EU Dialogue on End-of-life Recreational Craft" in Brussels, Belgium, in collaboration with the Belgian EU Presidency and the European Commission (EC).
  • This report developed by the Belgian EU Presidency summaries the event.



A Guide to Responsible BoatingLesser known tropical timber species for the yachting industry

  • In collaboration with The SeaCleaners NGO, EBI has developed a guide intended for all individuals for whom boating and watersports is a passion. 
  • This guide contains best practices for boaters and valuable information and resources to make activities in the water more sustainable. The guide is in English and French.




Lesser known Tropical Timber Species for the Yachting IndustryLesser known tropical timber species for the yachting industry

  • The catalogue, developed by the Forest Stewardship Council, gathers alternative tropical timber species from sustainably managed forests to use in the nautical industry.
  • It contains valuable information relevant to sustainability in yachting, including the benefits of using alternative tropical wood and showcases 34 different wood species available.



Introduction to Sustainability in Introduction to Sustainability in Marinas picMarinas

  • The guide gathers several of the leading experts in marinas sustainability.
  • It contains valuable information about the main issues relevant to promoting sustainability in marinas, including new topics such as Sustainable Design, Building Alliances or Smart Marinas




boot Study 23 1The Future of Sustainable on-water Propulsion

  • The study addresses the latest trends in the boating industry, with a special focus on the future of propulsion.
  • It collects data from customers, boat builders, engine manufacturers and associations.
  • In its conclusions, the study provides a picture of the current state of the industry and how the challenge of decarbonisation of the industry is shaping up.



alternative front page E.N. Study Skills Gap in Nautical Tourism

  • The study, carried out within the framework of the EnviroNaut project, contains feedback from around 100 people representing all sectors of nautical tourism, from charter workers to NGO representatives.
  • This document presents the environmental skills most needed in the sector today, as well as the skill gaps, and serves as a first point to understand the specific training needs of the sector.



 Guide for the Recycling and Ecodesign of Composites (GREC) - GREC HANDBOOK

GREC Livret pic

  • The guide compiles and explores the various opportunities that end-of-life composite materials can offer to the industry.
  • GREC is the result of a joint effort by three industry stakeholders and aims to help manufacturers adopt a circular economy model by highlighting the end-of-life of composite products and addressing the increasing legislative requirements for them.
  • It covers a wealth of information on composite materials, including opportunities for recovery, innovative ways to implement new technologies and how to initiate a composite eco-design process.


 A European Roadmap on the implementation of the circular economy for end-of-life recreational boatsCover

  • The Roadmap, developed by public and private stakeholders, including national authorities, industry, consumers/boaters, academia, and related industries sets the stage to comprehensively solve the issue of end-of-life boats, a key challenge for the industry.
  • It follows the successful dismantling and recycling schemes already set up in many European countries.
  • The industry, represented by EBI, commits to phasing out landfilling and energy recovery by 2030. It will expand the use of more sustainable recycling solutions in coordination with other composite use industries.



 An Ocean of Opportunities - Investor report
Investors report an ocean of opportunities

  • The report provides an overview of investment activities and opportunities in the EU blue economy, offering investors the necessary market knowledge about the EU blue economy to support investment decisions and advance the green transition.
  • It features the key innovative technologies and a sample of investment-ready companies across 10 sustainable blue economy sectors from the BlueInvest pipeline, including coastal & maritime tourism and boatbuilding & refit.






A Circular Blue Economy for the Mediterranean: Current practices and opportunities (SwitchMed BlueCircular Blue Economy Report Growth Community, 2022)

  • The  aim of the report is to describe the state of play in the development of circular economy in some blue sectors in the Mediterranean.
  • In terms of sectors, it covers marinas, recreational boating and yachting, which are studied in the light of circular economy principles.
  • The report provides in its conclusions an analysis of the challenges hindering the advancement of circular economy as well as solutions and recommendations to tackle these obstacles.



EU Blue Economy Report 2022 (European Commission, 2022)Blue Economy Report 2022

  • Analysis of the EU's blue economy sectors with the aim to support policy-makers and stakeholders to promote sustainability and the European Green Deal.
  • The report also lays out key information for established and new sectors, including those covering boating and nautical tourism.


Guidelines for the sustainability of cruising and recreational boating in the Mediterranean (Blue Growth Community, 2022)

  • Five major challenges have been identified for both sectors: 1) Eliminating atmospheric emissions of pollutants and greenhouse gases; Guidelines for sustainability MED2) Safeguarding ecosystems and biodiversity; 3) Eliminating water pollution (chemical, organic, wastewater effluents), preventing waste generation and improving waste management; 4) Boosting knowledge and innovation; and 5) Avoiding the impacts on local socio-economic systems.
  • Key elements of the Guidelines include the overall sustainability objectives for both sectors, suggested solutions to sustainability challenges, a list of high-impact actions for each sector and topic, as well as sustainability indicators. 
  • Case studies are also provided specific to the recreational boating industry, namely on the Portofino Marine Protected Area (MPA) and the French Clean Harbours certification.


Review study on the Recreational Craft Directive 2013/53/EU (TNO, Emisia, Panteia, 2021)

  • This study was carried out for the European Commission by a Consortium consisting of Panteia), TNO and Emisia (as required by the review clause set out in Article 52 of Directive 2013/53/EU
  • As a part of the approach, an in-depth data analysis was performed, consisting of a PublicReview study on the Recreation Craft Directive Consultation and supplementing targeted consultations and interviews.
  • It focuses on three main areas: exhaust emissions, evaporative emission and watercraft design categories and offers recommendations to the European Commission.




Position Paper on achieving the objectives in the Communication on a Sustainable Blue Economy (Blue Growth Community, 2021)


  • The position paper was produced in reaction to the European Commission Communication on a Sustainable Blue EconomyBGC position paper
  • It includes a sectoral approach with specific reccomendations for the sustainability of Coastal and Maritime Sustainable Tourism, acknowledging the role of the boating, yachting and maritime tourism sector with specific requests 



Roadmap for the Decarbonisation of the European Recreational Marine Craft Sector (The Carbon Trust, 2021)

  • This report contains research and recommendations to European governments and recreational marine craft businesses on how they can lead the world in decarbonising this sector.
    Blue Economy Report 2021 Pagina 001
  • The Carbon Trust works with businesses, governments and institutions for a more sustainable future through carbon reduction, resource efficiency strategies and commercialising low carbon businesses, systems and technologies. 
  • The report was commissioned by the UK Department of Transport and the UK Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office. 



EU Blue Economy Report 2021 (European Commission, 2021)

  • The report provides an update on the economic performance of both established and emerging sectors across the EU Member States.Blue Economy Report 2021 Pagina 001
  • It provides also an overview of the impacts of Brexit and Covid-19 crisis on EU Blue Economy.
  • It includes a case study on "European Boating Industry: COVID impacts on recreational boating"  (page71). 




EU Blue Economy Report 2020 (European Commission, 2020)

  • Based on 2018 data collected from Eurostat.
  • Includes specific information for each sectoBlue Economy report 2020r in the blue economy, including “building of pleasure and sporting boats”, “repair and maintenance of ships and boats” and “coastal and maritime tourism”. This is broken down at national level for key indicators, such as employment, value added, turnover, gross profit margin and other key indicators.
  • Also includes a case study on “The Recreational Boating Industry: Made in Europe” (page 150).


Annexes with country-specific information: Annex I, Annex II.

Online dashboard to view the data.

The EU Blue Economy Report 2019 imageEU Blue Economy Report 2019 (European Commission, 2019)

  • Assesses the potential of oceans and coasts in leading to sustainable economic growth and seeks to support the development of management policies that will ensure this.
  • Includes new maritime sub-sectors compared to the previous edition, such as marine equipment and machinery (in "Shipbuilding and repair").
  • For the first time, the report comprises an overview of the EU sea basins.
  • Includes specific information for each sector in the blue economy, broken down at national level for key indicators (employment, value added, turnover, gross profit margin, etc.).


Blue Economy policy paperBlue Economy in the Mediterranean - Policy Paper (InnoBlueGrowth, 2019)

  • Sets forward a list of objectives and actions for promoting the Blue Economy in the Mediterranean based on the technical and policy results of the Blue Growth Community projects.
  • One of its focal sectors is the yachting industry for which specific recommendations were developed.


The 2018 annual economic report on blue economy imgEU Blue Economy Report 2018 (European Commission, 2018)

  • This first Annual Economic Report of the EU Blue Economy intends to measure the trends, performance and progress of the Blue Economy in Europe.
  • It looks into the established maritime sectors (living resources; marine extraction and oil and gas; ports, warehousing and water projects; shipbuilding and repair; coastal tourism) but also at some emerging innovative sectors (marine renewable energy; blue bioeconomy; desalination; deep-seabed mining; coastal and environmental protection).


Education and business study imgBest practices and user stories (collection of documents) (European Commission, 2018)

  • This compendium of documents puts together initiatives in Europe that contribute to developing the skills of maritime professionals and making them fit for the diverse needs of an evolving maritime economy.

Bridging education and business in the blue economy (PDF) - includes initiatives that focus on the link between education and industry in the maritime economy.

Lifelong learning, mobility and new training programs in the blue economy (PDF) - includes initiatives that focus on digitalisation and globalisation, and the new opportunities and unforeseen challenges that technology has brought upon the sector.

DOWNLOAD - includes intiatives that have the objective of increasing ocean knowledge.

Assessment of the Impact of Business Development Improvements around Nautical Tourism (ICF, 2016 - report prepared for the European Commission)

  • The objective of this study was to provide the European Commission with evidence to inform decisions about the development of EU policy on issues relevant to nautical tourism.
  • For a predefined set of nautical tourism topics, the objectives were: to explore and identify problems affecting market performance; to identify policy options that address the causes of these problems; and to analyse the expected impacts of the list of policy options.


Competitiveness study imgStudy on the competitiveness of the recreational boating sector (Ecorys, 2015 - report prepared for the European Commission)

  • After the Commission communication "A European Strategy for more Growth and Jobs in Coastal and Maritime Tourism", which underlined the importance of coastal and maritime tourism, especially for employment for the whole economy, the Directorate-General for Entreprise and Industry ordered this study to assess the overall competitiveness of the recreational boating sector.
  • The study identifies the main factors influencing the competitive performance of the EU recreational boating industry and provides policy recommendations on how the competitiveness of this sector in Europe could be improved.
  • It analyses the demand for recreational boating in Europe.
  • It analyses the boat manufacturing sector and the services sector.
  • It presents scenarios and recommendations to improve the EU’s growth and employment strategy.


MPA report imgReport from the Commission on the progress in establishing marine protected areas (European Commission, 2015)

  • The Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires Member States to adopt programmes of measures to achieve good environmental status in their marine waters by 2020. These progrmmes shall include spatial protection measures contributing to coherent and representative networks of marine protected areas (MPAs). This is the report on the progress in establishing marine protected areas


COM 2014 EU strategy on growthA European Strategy for more Growth and Jobs in Coastal and Maritime Tourism - Communication from the Commission (European Commission, 2014)

  • Following the Commission's 2010 Communication announcing a strategy for sustainable coastal and maritime tourism, this Communication from 2014 proposes joint responses to the multiple challenges, with a view to capitalising on Europe's strengths and enabling it to substantially contribute to the Europe 2020 objectives for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth.


EP 2012 Design Categories of Watercrafts imageDesign Categories of Watercrafts (European Parliament, 2012)

  • Design categories of watercrafts are one of the essential safety requirements which should be met and assigned through conformity assessment procedure required before placing watercrafts on the market.
  • This briefing note analyses if amending the design categories for recreational crafts and watercrafts can contribute to more precise and more appropriate criteria for design categories, while reflecting the terms used in the relevant international harmonised standards.


Nautical activities and environment study imgNautical activities: what impact on the environment? - A life cycle approach for "clear blue" boating (European Confederation of Nautical Industries, 2009)

  • This study is structured in order to follow the life-cycle approach of a boat, and identifies its environmental impact from its conception and manufacturing stage, through its useful life and related operations, concluding with its disposal at its end of life.



Complementary study on emission reduction measures 2008 imageComplementary Impact Assessment study on possible emission reduction measures for recreational marine craft engines (Arcadis Belgium, 2008 - report prepared for the European Commission)

  • This study complements the one below (ECNI 2006), and assesses the most ambitious feasible scenario to maximise the emission reduction potential of recreational craft engines, while at the same time mitigating the social and economic impact on SMEs that could result from such approach.



Study on possible scenarios on emission reduction measures 2006 imageStudy on The Feasibility and Impact of Possible Scenarios for Further Emission Reduction Measures for Recreational Craft Engines (European Confederation of Nautical Industries, 2006 - report prepared for the European Commission)

  • The study's objective was to identify and analyse the possible regulatory scenarios that could be put in place to improve the environmental characteristics of engines used in recreational marine craft.



Study on engines 2004 imageStudy on the environmental performance of recreational marine engines (TNO Automotive, 2004 - report prepared for the European Commission)

  • The study reports assesses the environmental impact of the use of propulsion engines of recreational craft, including the impact on air quality, on local water quality, and on noise.
  • The study also anlyses different options for improvement, and gives an extensive overview of the fleet and the market.